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Egypt is a country at the very north-easternmost point of Africa (and actually part of South West Asia).
Ancient Egypt's climate was, as it is now, hot and dry. This made farming very difficult and, without the River Nile, the Egyptian civilization would never have flourished in the way that it did.
The River Nile is the most notable geographical feature in Egypt. It is actually formed of two rivers; the White Nile that begins in the Great Lakes region of Central Africa is the longest of the two and the Blue Nile which rises somewhere in Rwanda join together in Sudan to form the River Nile which flows through Egypt and out into the Mediterranean Sea.
Every year the river would flood, spreading rich dark silt across the fields. This dark silt made the ground very fertile and it was what gave the area next to the river it's name of Nile Kemet ("Black Land").
It is because of this life-giving flood that almost all of the cities in Egypt were based along the river. Elsewhere in Egypt the terrain is basically just the hot, sandy Sahara desert (or Deshret, "Red Land", as the Egyptians called it.
Without the River Nile Egypt could not support major cities.